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What Will Happen To Antarctica?

Of all the continents, Antarctica is the coldest and inaccessible. In the past, people decided that Antarctica could be shared. But many countries are now looking at the Antarctica as a possible future source of natural resources and raw materials as their own resources start to run dry.

The aims of conservation and preservation also slowly being replaced with new aims of resource exploitation.International confrontations due to the exploitation of the natural resource may gradually replace the existing cooperation of international scientific studies.

The U.S Antarctic research base has experienced decades of tranquil international cooperation and sharing. They speak of people bound by the hostile environment, an explorer spirit, and a love for science, working together through cold and hot wars. antarctica cruise

Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd's vision of Antarctica and his efforts have lead to a park being dedicated to him near the National Science Foundation McMurdo Headquarters that are responsible for all of the U.S Antarctica operations.Byrd has led five Antarctic expeditions and was the first to fly over the South Pole. Byrd envisioned the Antarctic as a place where nations could work together peacefully for the common cause of science and that it should be a region that set an example of successful international cooperation. His ideas were noble, but how will they be affected by the world's appetite for energy and minerals?

The potential of the Antarctic's mineral deposits is not yet known precisely but there is lot of desire to find out. It has become no longer just a scientific and geological issue, but is now a political issue. It's quite likely that under the seas and beneath the frozen landscape, large deposits of minerals and oil exist. antarctica vacations

Minerals and untouched oil reserves have already been located in other areas of the planet which are geologically similar to the Antarctic and the surrounding region. The US has competed some small scientific offshore drilling and the results of which show a high possibility of hydrocarbon deposits. Large deposits of coal and iron have been discovered on land, as well as concentrations of chromium, nickel, cobalt, copper, gold, titanium, lead, tin, uranium and other metallic minerals.

The hostile environment of the Antarctic has, until now, made its exploitation to expensive to consider. New technology now exists to make the process more easily achievable and with the ever increasing costs of natural resources governments are now seeing the task as more economical so the Antarctic scientists are becoming concerned.

Environmentalists worldwide are concerned because the Antarctic is one of the remaining few regions that are still unpolluted, untouched and unspoilt on Earth. The commercial interests will most certainly cause damage to the environment and environmental organizations like the International Institute for Environment and Development and also the Sierra Club are hoping the damage from this conflict can be minimal.

They both feel that exploration of the resources is inevitable but must be accompanied with research on the impact the exploitation will have on the environment. However they are concerned that the results of the assessments will encourage the exploitation. Oil spills are the most worrying concern. The bird life and the seals found in Antarctica generally live on the coastal regions and are likely to be affected. Colder climates cause oil to degrade and break up at a slower rate than in warmer ones so an oil spill in the Antarctic will be harder to deal with and more damaging than in other areas.

The Antarctic became a scientific preserve in 1959 under a landmark treaty and most of the activity there is controlled by the treaty. The 12 original signatory nations, who were later joined by Poland, administer the continent jointly and have closed it off to military activity, nuclear weapons testing and radioactive waste disposal. All of the land claims by different nations that overlap have been side stepped by the treaty.

Tour Florence and Choose the Nicest Hotels

It isn't exactly easy to get a perfect hotel in Florence, as the shape of the town isdifferent from any you've seen. In this article you will know the 3 main areas in which Florence was divided, and the traits that set their hostels apart ; itwill be far easier to find the most suitable accommodation for your holiday in Florence


If you're counting on having afun filled time... but can stand the noise, this is for you! This part of Florence is little so you don't have to drive anywhere to see anything. All of the major attractions of Florence are located in this area, like the Uffizi studio and Ponte Vecchio.

The hostels in the historic middle of Florence are usually very small, family-run, superbly decorated with period furniture. You must take into account the undeniable fact that it will be hard to get some relaxation in while staying in this area. It's perfect if you plan to be on the go so take in the town and the art, but it is not a quite place to stay at all.


This is the ideal place to remain if you would like to chill and still be able to walk to the attractions. The avenues surround the historic middle of Florence, and are gorgeous tree-lined places and Florence Hotel with Whirlpool bath. This is where you will find the bigger hotels that are way more upscale.

If you've already been to Florence, youwill need to select your preferred area or monument, and then look for a hotel near the avenues ; if you are doing so, you can reach all the sights on foot, and at the same time relax in extraordinarily quiet and peaceful environment, compared almost all of the hostels in the city center.


If youare in the mood for some romance, this is it. The town of Florence is very small, thus the edge is essentially very close to the downtown. You will see many green spots and local favourite restaurants around this area. You will also find fewer travellers here.

Hotels that are located in this area are often historic villas and palaces. If you plan on showing your romantic side, this would be the best location to stay. Just remember that you cannot walk to the main museums and monuments, so be careful to decide the true point of your Florence vacation!

Information on Car Rental

If you have ever rented a car for a limited time period, be it on a holiday, a business trip, or while your own vehicle was being repaired, you have probably faced the situation of whether to take out insurance at the rental agency desk when you rent the car. Paying your rental company for insurance on your rental car is sometimes necessary, but not always. In fact, much of the time rental car insurance ends up adding some fairly high fees onto your rental even though the coverage you’re paying for may be completely redundant.

To know whether you need to write a check for the hefty chunk of change that many car rental companies collect for insurance coverage, all you need to do is spend a bit of time enquiring exactly what kind of coverage you already have. In many cases, your regular auto insurance is more than sufficient to protect you financially if you do damage a rental car. Anyone who owns their own vehicle has an insurance policy that gives them some level of coverage in case of damage to the car from an accident, theft, vandalism, or other mishap. All policies differ, but most of the time this same coverage will apply to a car rented in the policy owner’s name. This means that if your car is fully insured, any rental car that you drive will probably be just as well covered as your own vehicle.

Whether you find out that you need to take out a non-owner auto liability insurance policy, or whether you discover that you don’t need to pay anything other than what you already do for insurance, a bit of forethought and planning can save you a lot of money at the car rental desk. Your rental car may be temporary, but the savings will be permanent.

Be Prepared For A Passport For An Infant Application}

It used to be a trust issue for children to travel in the United States and abroad to a certain age level. However, now with increased security and issues of child welfare, all travelers of any age are required to have photo identification when traveling within the United States and also a passport if traveling outside of the country. Even to Canada and Mexico you will need a child passport, even for an infant.

Obtaining a passport for your child is a good idea anyway. You can use it for many instances where your child needs legal identification. You can update their photo as they grow. There are certain items you need to be prepared to bring when applying for a child passport.

Be prepared to bring a birth certificate for your child to prove they are a citizen of the United States. This is the seal certificate and not a copy. The card form does not apply and is not accepted. If you do not have a U. S. Certificate then any legal document that proves the child is a citizen will work. Ask ahead of time if you are unsure. They will keep the documentation to submit with the application so be prepared for that and get a copy if you need it for something else.

You will also need proof that you are the parent. You will need to prove this with a birth certificate or custody papers if it is an adoption. If one parent is not present and both have custody you will need a notarized signature on a form you get from the post office or download online of the absent parent. If you have sole custody and the other parent is not in the picture you will need your signed court documents to prove it when applying for a passport for your child.

You will also need your child's social security number for the DS-11 application that is submitted to the federal government. It is best to bring your child's social security card with you just in case. They will not collect this piece of material.

You have to prove your identification as well. You can use your passport or driver's license. You can also use a military ID if you have one. There are also other documents you can use. Just check with their website before you go if you have other types of identification.

Many sites will take your photo but you can also bring your own. You just need to meet their requirements. Many photo shops will take a passport photo for you and give you two copies of the picture for the application.

You also need to be prepared for the cost of a infant passport. They are expensive and if you need to save up you will need to do so. They do not take payments and with the children passport application you will have to pay the fee. Make sure you have all the documents you need and be prepared to wait. Some offices have long lines so be prepared to wait, as your child needs a United States passport to travel.

Peace and Quiet and Fun at Dude Ranches

The world is shrinking. The population is gorwing and there is no end in sight. In many ways, we seem to be getting pretty crowded. But everyone needs that space to feel good again. Nature is a way for humans to center themselves and focus their minds, because there is nothing mentally demanding about being in nature, as opposed to a bustling city street. But not everyone knows where to look to find this kind of peace and quiet. Not everyone knows where to look. The idea of Dude ranches may seem bizarre, but don’t debunk them yet. At such a ranch, you get away from the hustle and bustle of the city or crowded suburbs, and have wide open spaces. You get your hearty meals cooked for you and your time is your own. You could learn to ride horseback, or just take endless walks across the plains. It may not seem like the most conventional vacation or way to gather your thoughts, but it is effective. The ranches give you everything you need. From exercise to free time, they have it all. People need breaks form their jobs and chores. People are more stressed these days, and should do something about it.
You may be wondering where in the world can you even find a dude ranch, if you’ve never run across one in your life? But not to worry, because this is the United States, where cowboys and the Wild West is part of our history, and the ranches are spread out and numerous to this day. Cowboys and western frontiersmen were the first to explore the spacious American plains. And don’t worry, there’s no lack of spirit today, or ranches. If you live in Montana, for example, you’re surely able to find plenty of Montana dude ranches that are near you. Finding one of these ranches is not the difficult part. It is convincing yourself that you deserve a break and a little excitement is what’s hard. Everyone just needs to get their priorities in order once in a while through the art of peace and quiet. Feeling healthy and in control of your life is a very important part of living.

So whether or not you’ve ever seen a horse in person, a ranch full of dudes and helpful hands could be just the vacation you’ve been looking for.

Research The Passport Requirements Application Before Traveling To Mexico Or Anywhere Else!

So you want to go to Mexico? That’s no surprise as Mexico is easily one of the most popular tourist destinations for many Americans. This country has a lot to offer in terms of culture, food, and great beaches. Mexico is the home to many pre-Hispanic civilizations such as the Maya and Olmec, and that’s in addition to its popular Mexican cuisine, and the beaches of Acapulco. If you’re traveling to this destination, we’ll show you what the passport requirements are, including answering your questions such as whether or not you need a passport when traveling to this lovely country.

Mexico is a part of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI). And as such, you can travel to this country with different US documents that will prove both your identity and citizenship. Documents you can use include your US passport book or your passport card.

What’s the difference between a passport book and a passport card? Let’s talk about the regular passport book first. This is the conventional passport book that you can use to travel to international destinations, including Mexico. Using a passport book provides you with flexibility when traveling to different countries, and not just the WHTI member-countries. Also, you’ll need a passport book for international air travel.

But there are several advantages when using a passport card. First, of course, is the size. Compared to the passport book, the card is smaller which makes it easy for you to keep. Applying for a passport card is also cheap, which is another point for cards over passport books. However, you can only use the passport card if you’re traveling by land or sea to WHTI territories.

Can you apply for both the passport book and the passport card? Yes, you can. Simply present the necessary requirements for your passport application. The great thing about applying for these documents at the same time is that you get a significant discount than applying for them individually.

You may notice that the WHTI allows the use of other US documents when traveling to WHTI destinations. These documents may include your birth certificate and your enhanced driver’s license. It’s best if you consult with the Mexican Embassy first to ensure that you can use these or other types of documents.

Keep in mind that there are certain additional passport requirements for minors and businesspeople traveling to Mexico. Minors have to bring a notarized copy of the parental consent. This document should also include the child’s travel details including the airlines he/she will be taking, as well as the minor’s travel schedule. Filling in Form FM-N is required of businesspeople to authorize them to conduct business in the country. If you have more questions regarding the requirements of the two, check with the Mexican Embassy.

When traveling to Mexico, make sure you secure the proper ID first before leaving the country. Also make sure what the U S passport requirements are before traveling there. Just remember that when traveling to Mexico by land or sea, you can use your American Passport card. On the other hand, you’ll need to use the US passport book if you’re traveling by air.

Avoid The Freezing Weather By Flying South

Instead of turning the heating up, why not look at where you could go for a week of winter sun and book a holiday? With the imminent return of freezing temperatures, many in the UK will be at the end of their tether with the coldest winter for twenty years. The downturn in tourism over recent years is also another reason for grabbing yourself a holiday bargain, and although Lanzarote has been less affected than other destinations there are still some great deals around.

Whilst only seventeen hundred miles to the south, a group of islands continues to bask in warm weather, with an average temperature of 20º C even in the middle of December. Those islands are the Canaries, which although geographically aren’t really part of Europe, are in fact the southern most tip of the European Community.

Of the Canaries, it is Lanzarote that usually has the driest climate, given its close proximity to the north African coast and the low-lying nature of the island. With no mountains over 700 metres, rainfall is kept to a minimum, falling on average only twenty days a year. The intense heat of mainland Spain is tempered by breezes straight off the Atlantic.

The excellent choice of Lanzarote villas and Lanzarote apartments available never ceases to amaze many of the visitors to the island.

And whilst many UK sun-seekers may already know the islands, having visited Gran Canaria or Tenerife, a holiday in Lanzarote is an entirely different thing. Unlike its neighbours, development on Lanzarote has been kept within tight constraints.

Then there is an incredible choice of villas, in all three of the main resorts as well as plenty dotted around the countryside. Holiday villas in Lanzarote provide the kind of home-from-home comforts that many holidaymakers prefer these days. Including internet access, air conditioning and use of a private swimming pool.

Many of the quiet residential streets, lined with palms and tropical trees, also contain numerous holiday villas. And such is the choice of villas in Lanzarote, there is usually something to suit every budget and taste, whether it is for couples, families or groups of friends.

Some villas come equipped as a home-from-home, with DVD libraries and books to entertain their guests. Others have games rooms, with pool tables and Playstations. Nearly all have built-in barbecues, as the weather allows al-fresco dining at all times of the year. Private swimming pools are also the norm, with most heated during the winter months to just take the chill off the water. With hot-tubs also on the increase, there are plenty of ways to relax in a Lanzarote villa.

Hotel In Las Vegas

Las Vegas attracts thousands of tourists every year, and when planning vacations, people often search for the best deals possible in terms of accommodation and travel. And there is no vacation planning to the Sin City without taking a look at the best offer of Las Vegas hotels.

If you have a hotel-branded credit card you can enjoy silver or gold access to Las Vegas hotel services. On certain occasions you will not be able to get to the hotel's casino unless you operate some upgrades of the credit card. If you have other selection criteria, make sure you take into consideration the time of the year, the budget and the number of guests at the Las Vegas hotels. Among special client requirements in terms of rooms, we can mention the preference for different bed sizes, or the use of non-smoking facilities.

The hotel conditions do not satisfy the clients' needs all the time. Don't be afraid to ask for another room, since most lodgings do everything in their power to please costumers. Tip the desk clerk even if it sounds a bit awkward, but this method still works magic when you want to enjoy a great service. Las Vegas Hotels are probably the most profitable in the United States because of the large number of visitors that arrive to this part of the country every year.

In case you are after great Las Vegas hotel deals, you will certainly be willing to pay less money for a back room that does not a great view. The balcony or window view considerably increase the price per room. Count the quality standards and you'll see how special the services can be in the Sin City.

The highest prices are charged by the Hotel In Las Vegas located in the Strip but they are also the most difficult to book: casinos, shopping centers, banks and lots of other entertainment facilities are located right in this central part of the city. Better prices for Las Vegas hotels can be found with establishments downtown where you won't have the same luxury level, but you won't pay a fortune either. Only stay at the Las Vegas hotels in the Strip if you really can afford it and you want to enjoy a thrilling casino experience.

The Fight For Antarctica

Antarctica is the coldest and most desolate of all the regions of the planet. Antarctica is the only place that all nations agreed should be shared. However as more and more natural resources start to dry up, more nations are eying Antarctica as a region of additional resources.

The aims of conservation and preservation also slowly being replaced with new aims of resource exploitation.The international cooperation of scientific research in the region could well be replaced by the more nationalistic activity of natural resource acquirement, leading to confrontation.

So far, places such as the United States Antarctic base the scientists have only experienced a tranquil environment of sharing and cooperation between nations. Many say that the challenge of the hostile environment causes people to work together better with a spirit of adventure even when the world is fighting other wars and conflicts. antarctica travel

The McMurdo Headquarters of the National Science Foundation, which runs the U.S Antarctica operations have a small park located nearby which is dedicated to the work and dreams of Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd. Richard Evelyn Byrd led five expeditions across Antarctica and was the first to fly over the South Pole. His vision for Antarctica is a continent of peace, as nations work together for the cause of science, and set an example of international cooperation. But as we consume more of the Earth minerals and become more energy dependent are Byrd's idealistic practices likely to remain in tact?

The potential of the Antarctic's mineral deposits is not yet known precisely but there is lot of desire to find out. The Antarctic was an issue for scientists to deal with but it is now one that politicians are taking more interest in.Under the frozen icescape and seas that make up the Antarctic many believe that there is a large source of untouched minerals and oil reserves. antarctica vacation

Virgin oil reserves and minerals are already known to exist in geologically similar regions of the planet.Offshore drilling by the U.S.A has already confirmed that hydrocarbon deposits are very likely to exist. Coal deposits in large quantities have already been discovered with lead, gold, uranium, tin, chromium, nickel, titanium and cobalt already found in high concentrations.

Until now the extreme nature of the environment has made the exploitation of the Antarctic an expensive and impossible task. The new technology available today has made exploitation of the region easier and because the prices of the minerals have risen considerably it has become more economical to exploit the region and this has brought concern to the scientists.

Antarctica is now one of the very few areas on Earth that have managed to stay unpolluted and untouched and this makes the exploitation of minerals there even more of a concern for environment groups worldwide. The exploitation of the region will certainly conflict with the environment and the International Institute for Environment and Development and the Sierra group are both aware of the prospects of this happening.

They both feel that exploration of the resources is inevitable but must be accompanied with research on the impact the exploitation will have on the environment. What worries them is that any fact finding exploration will encourage nations to exploit the area. What raises most concerns is drilling for oil due to the chances of a spill. Antarctica's birds and seal populations are found on the coast and could easily be affected. The colder climate would cause the oil to not break up or degrade as quickly as in warmer areas so any spill is likely to be more damaging in the Antarctic than anywhere else.

Many of the activities that take place in the region are tied to a treaty created from 1959 that set Antarctica aside specifically as a scientific preserve. There were 12 nations involved in signing the treaty, later joined by Poland, jointly administer the region and ensure that no military activity, including nuclear weapon testing takes place and that no radioactive waste is disposed there. Great Britain, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand, France, Norway and Chile all have territory claims in Antarctica but the treat managed to side step these land claims.

Walt Disney World Vacation

Most American think that Disney world vacations are most suitable for children. Popular packages, low prices and the possibility to customize services, this is the attractive offer provided by so many travel agencies. For example, the included services will be pre-selected according to your preferences, the time you want to spend, the number of family members, the time of the year for which you make the reservations and so on.

The offer for Disney world vacations seems to be more advantageous for 2009 than it was for 2008, particularly in the context of world financial crisis. There have been considerable discounts granted in comparison with last year's rates. For example, if a 4-member family paid $1500 for six nights and seven days in a Disney world resort, lots of packages are now available for around $1100 . Which points out that the savings are considerable, and if you shop around, you can get very good offers.

Here are some more strategies to save money on disney world vacations. Compare the offers and identify the most advantageous ones. Then, you can do pretty much the same thing when it comes to hotel rooms. Pay attention to the travel lodges because they may prove below the comfort level expected by the consumer. At least with a travel agency you are certain to book something nice.

Taking sightseeing tours could be a problem with most vacation disney world. Remember that you are taking some time off to relax and have fun. When paying for a tour and thus committing to it, you will be under pressure all the time, and other people will decide how you spend your vacation. It is better to choose those packages that do not have tours included, and you will pay less and be able to select what, when and where you want to visit local attractions.

In terms of destinations, there are four major theme parks that you can visit as part of Disney world vacations: Epcot, Magic Kingdom, Animal Kingdom and Disney's Hollywood Studios.Plan things carefully, because you will have to spend lots of money once you get there. Find out all you can about kids itineraries, park admission fees, age and height requirements, and inquire about special entertainment events. Each of these elements only add up to the rest of the factors (time of the year and vacation budget), making important premises for the success of your vacation.